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How Does Wind Speed and Direction Sensor Work?

User:JXCTUpload time:Jan 06 2023

The anemometer is one of the oldest meteorological instruments in human history. Anemometers have been used as a tool to measure wind speed for more than 500 years. The word anemometer comes from the Greek word anemos, which means wind. This paper will give a comprehensive discussion of anemometer from the development history of wind speed and direction sensor, to the basic working principle of wind speed and direction sensor, as well as the problems often found in wind speed and direction sensor.

Wind Speed and Direction Sensor
What is the History of Anemometer?

Anemometer was first invented by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450 – an Italian architect. His anemometer is a mechanical anemometer that consisted of a disk placed perpendicular to the direction of the wind that would spin when there is a wind flow, the angle of inclination of the disk momentarily revealing its force.

Following the first invention of mechanical anemometer, many others further improved and developed their own versions of anemometer. Cup anemometer was one of the earliest and most successful anemometer development that is still popularly used up to this day. It is still remain as the industry standards wind measurement device.

Anemometer usually consists of two main parts; the wind sensor and the display receiver. Depending on the measurement types, the wind sensor can be categorized into two types; wind speed sensor and wind speed and direction sensor.

Wind Speed Sensor

The wind speed sensor is a vertical axis with three hemispherical or half cone cups on top. The concave surfaces of the cups are fixed in the same direction. While the wind speed and direction is a vertical axis with three half-cups on top and a wind vane arrow on the bottom.

The general working principle for cup anemometer is actually quite simple, the wind cup rotations will indicate the wind speed. While the arrow on the bottom of the wind sensor will point to the direction the wind is blowing from.

How Does Wind Sensor Work?

The wind flows cause the wind cups to rotate. The faster the wind blows, the faster the cups rotate. The rotation triggers the rotor of the internal sensor to calculate the wind speed.

Wind Direction Sensor
Where to Mount Wind Speed and Direction Sensor?

The wind sensor is usually installed vertically above the ground and at the highest possible point. The location where the wind sensor is gonna be placed is the most important part of installation as it will affect the wind measurement data. The wind sensor should be placed at open space where it is not covered under trees or any other tall objects.

Wind Speed Sensor Mounted on Cranes

Typically for crane operation safety, the crane operator only need to know the wind speed, therefore wind speed sensor is more suitable for crane operation. The wind speed sensor is mounted on the highest possible point, usually at the crane’s boom. The wind cups must be fully exposed to the wind and able to spin freely at all boom angles.The wind sensor is mounted on the boom using a self-leveling magnet mount, while the display receiver is mounted inside the crane cabin.There should be a clear and unobstructed line of sight between the wind speed sensor and the crane’s cabin.

Wind Speed and Direction Sensor Mounted on a Boat/ Vessel

Wind speed and direction is a crucial information for a boat or vessel for boating safety. The wind is responsible for creating waves and swell. With the use of anemometer, sailors can obtain reliable weather information and grasp the wind conditions outside. Wind sensors are usually installed on the highest point which is on the mast.